25 November 2015

A New Bridge for Old Christianshavn

"I have a student who paints in a very strange way....I try not to influence him." - Peter Severin Kroyer

I. - Silence is the word most often used in connection with the paintings of Vilhelm Hammershoi (1864-1916).   Hammershoi was a "strange" painter as his teacher, Kroyer, noted early on but that strangeness is more mysterious than received wisdom has it.  Hammershoi himself stated more than once that what attracted him, in both interior and exterior settings, was architectural elements and the relationships between them.  As for the deliberate minimalism of Hammershoi's interiors, the Victorian taste for overstuffed interiors did not become poplar in Scandinavia.  When the Hammershois stayed in London they rented rooms near the British Museum, asking  that knickknacks be removed from the reception room as they distracted from the simplicity of the flat.
Even in his portraits, Hammershoi avoided narrative, as he explained to his brother Svend (also a an artist) in a letter written from London, regular portraits did not interest him.  Of course, this left an opening for speculation that began with Hammershoi's contemporaries and continues to this day.  What we are to make of the empty rooms that reverberate with emotions we cannot pin down?  And what are we to make of the reserve of his human subjects, is it theirs or is it created by the painter?

The Danish philosopher Kierkegaard is also often invoked to explain Hammershoi's paintings.  Kierkegaard's "infinite qualitative distinction"   sounds like what we experience when looking at  a Hammershoi:
"...one may risk saying something infinitely decisive and be quite correct in what one says, and yet, ludicrously enough, say nothing at all. Hence it is a psychologically noteworthy phenomenon, that the absolute disjunction may be used quite disingenuously, precisely for the purpose of evasion." - Soren Kierkegaard, 1846, from Concluding Unscientific Postscript, p. 313, Swenson & Lowrie translation.
But names like Kierkegaard or Hamlet are used as shorthand for anything Danish; the origins of Shakespeare's play Hamlet, Prince of Denmark are broadly Indo-European. 

Vilhelm Hammerhois and Ida Ilsted married in 1891 and lived together  contentedly until the painter died from throat cancer in 1916.  Ida often appeared in interior scenes, usually with her back to the viewer - again not a regular portrait but more a quiet domestic scene.  Interiors of their various Christianshavn apartments (30 Strandgade, 25 Bredgade, 25 Strandgade) are uniformly buildings from previous centuries, their stone facades usually left unpainted.  Even the brick facades that were in common use during the 17th century were painted in colors that imitated stone.

The large windows at 30 Strandgade faced the harbor, visible between wings of the Asiatic Company Building across the street. The Hammershois lived there from 1898 to 1909.  The rooms opened on one another through a series of doors, rather than being organized around a central hall.  Most importantly. large windows filled the rooms with light    While they were in London in November 1912, their "dream" apartment at 25 Strangade in the Asiatic Company Building became  available.  They rented it, sight unseen.
Copenhagen's "gray overcoat" is the product of the soft northern light and the muted colors of its buildings. Depending on your viewpoint, the typical grayness of the air enveloping Copenhagen is either severe or dreamlike.  Its similarity to the skies over London could explain why Hammershois felt more at home there than anywhere else they traveled to.   Hammemrshoi wrote home that he could never digest the elaborate decoration of Paris or Rome, if he spent the rest of his life there; he knew exactly what - and how much - stimulation he needed in order to paint.

Christian IV (1577-1648) was the Danish King as master-builder; his town and city projects fill up the fingers of both hands and then some and still exist in Sweden, Norway, and Germany as well as in Denmark.  Christianshavn began as a program to fortify  the capitol city of Copenhagen in 1612.  To this end, earthen embankments were built up in the marshy area between the city and the island of Amager to its east.  Christian employed Johan Semp to create an urban plan for Christianshavn in 1617.  By 1639 it had become an established  merchant enclave.

Strandgade (Beach Street) extended  the full length of the island, following the harbor front.  Semp’s original intention was to build along one side of the street across from the water, leaving the beach side to provide private harbor facilities for the lot owners who could  transfer goods from ships to their warehouses.

Painting Tranquility: Masterworks by Vilhelm Hammershoi from SMK - The National Gallery of Denmark is on view at Scandinavia House in New York City from 24 November 2015 to 27 February 2016.

II. -  In Christianshavn there are canals around every corner.   Warehouses and the ships that come and go, depositing their cargoes, are interspersed with residential apartments in a manner that modern zoning regulations have all but banished.
A city crisis-crossed by canals is a city in need of bridges.  Earlier this year Cirkelbroen, or Circle Bridge, was built by Studio Olafur Eliaason near Christianshavn's south end. The five  circular platforms are a pedestrian bridge that will become part of a larger pedestrian route around the Copenhagen harbor.   The color red connects the bridge to the brick buildings at the side while the masts pay tribute the shipping trade that shaped and supported Christianshavn from its beginning.

Eliasson believes that art makes life better,  a vision similar in spirit to the philosopher Horace's dictum that the purpose of art is to delight and instruct.  At the moment this is an unfashionable notion at every level.  Nevertheless, Eliasson says “I hope that these people will use Cirkelbroen as a meeting place, and that the zigzag design of the bridge will make them reduce their speed and take a break. To hesitate on our way is to engage in bodily thought.”   Like Kierkegaard, a century and a half ago, who walked the streets of Copenhagen in order, he said, to compose his thoughts. 

Note: Olafur Eliasson was born in 1967 and grew up in Iceland and Denmark. After studying at Royal Acadmey of Fine  Arts in Copenhagen he established  Studio Olafur Eliasson in Berlin where ninety  people including  architects, computer programmers, art historians, and cooks work together on projects.  Eliasson’s Your waste of time was an installation at MoMA PS1 last year that consisted of several chunks cut from an Icelandic glacier, installed in a refrigerated gallery where they were on display for nearly four months. 

By the way there is more3 about Hammershoi on this site here and here and here  and here.

1. Vilhelm Hamme3rshoi - The  Old Christianborg Palace - Late Autumn, National Gallery of Denmark, Copenhagen.
2. Vilhelm Hammershoi - The Christianshavn Canal, 1905, National Gallery of Denmark, Copenhagen.
 3. Vilhelm Hammershoi - View of the Old Asiatic Company from 30 Strandgade, 1902, on loan to the Ordrupgaard Museum, Copenhagen.
4. Vilhelm Hammershoi - The Old Christianborg Castle, 1907, National Gallery of Denmark, Copenhagen.
5. Anders Sune Berg - Cirkelbroen (The Circle Bridge) by Olafur Eliaason, Copenhagen, 2015, Studio Olafur Eliasson.
6.  Anders Sune Berg - Cirkelbroen at Night, 2015, Studio Olafur Eliasson.

08 November 2015

Wrapped Lemons: Angela Perko & W.J. McCloskey

I had never heard of Angela Perko until recently when I saw Wrapped Lemons apres W.J. McCloskey (above); I had heard of William McCloskey, but  couldn't remember how although I did remember why.  The elusive artist painted strangely captivating wrapped fruits, a genre he may well have  invented.
The artist Angela Perko, also  turns out to admire the Canadian artists known collectively as  the Group of Seven, artists I've mentioned recently.  Perko cites the group, especially its lone female member Emily Carr,  as influencing  her use of color.  She arranges colors fearlessly, as comfortable with dissonance as she is with delicacy.   Like the Seven, Perko explored painting through landscape; like McCloskey she was born elsewhere but eventually moved to California.
I think Perko's Wrapped Lemons  refers to  McCloskey's Florida Lemons (below).   Perko's painting lets us imagine a world where our eyes can separate planes of vision.  This feature, along with her use of depthless color achieved through barely visible brushwork, makes this a true cubist artwork.  There is a sad  story about the McCloskey painting.  According to The City Review (May 21, 2014), it was offered for sale at auction in New York City but "It failed to sell."

We are spoiled; we take the year-round availability  for granted of any fruit we desire.  Historically speaking, this state of things began just yesterday but there are artists whose works remind us of the magical properties of fruit, especially citrus fruit, with its contrasts of sweetness and tartness in seductively tactile containers.
Wrapped Oranges, painted in 1889 by the little known William J. McCloskey, brought me up short when I first saw it (see below).  These arrangements of fruits in tissue on what appear to be tabletops evoke a mysterious sense of place out of time, much as the Danish painter Vilhelm Hammershoi' s empty rooms do.     Tissue was the preferred method for packing  these precious fruits for shipping before the days of refrigerated trucks..
The story of  American still life painting begins with the Peales (Charles Wilson Peale, Rembrandt Peale, Raphaelle Peale, Titian Peale, and Margaretta Peale to name just five of the prolific and close-knit family).  Their paintings were among the best that a new nation produced during its early decades.  The Peales were also known as  experimenters in tromp l'oeil, a technique used to deceive the eye into seeing relationships between  planes and dimensions that are not there in ostensibly  realistic spatting.

Like the Peales, WillIma McCloskey and his wife Alberta Binford, painted works of great technical virtuosity; William excelled in portraits and fruit, Alberta in portraits and floral still lifes.  It was while staying in Los Angeles during the 1880s that the young couple established their artistic reputations.  Already southern California had begun to promote itself as the garden state of the west, home to  plentiful orange groves.  An unusual couple in many respects, the McCloskeys did not stay put, making their whereabouts at any given moment hard to pin down; but they lived in New York City (on 23rd Street near the Art Students League), London, and Paris and exhibited their works in Atlanta, Buffalo, and Providence, at least. Neglected after their deaths,  McCloskey's wrapped fruits again attracted  public interest beginning in the 1990s.
Both artists bring to the table, so to speak, an enthusiasm for  paint that makes  joie de vivre tactile.
Angela Perko is represented by Sullivan Goss: An American Gallery, Santa Barbara.

For further reading about William McCloskey: Partners In Illusion: Alberta Binford and William J. McCloskey  by Nancy D.W. Moure, Santa Ana,  Bowers Museum of Art: 1996.

1. Angela Perko - Wrapped Lemons apres W. J. McCloskey, 2015, Sullivan Goss: An American Art  Gallery, Santa Barbara.
2. William J. McCloskey  - Florida Lemons, 1919, Sotheby's, NYC.
3. William J. McCloskey - Wrapped Oranges, 1889, Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth.